Friday, September 7, 2007

Disease, Health,Remedy and Research

Origin and History
Ayurveda originated in India long back in pre-vedic period. Rigveda and Atharva-veda ( 5000 years B.C.), the earliest documented ancient Indian knowledge have references on health and diseases. Ayurved texts like Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita were documented about 1000 years B.C. The term Ayurveda means ‘Science of Life’. It deals elaborately with measures for healthful living during the entire span of life and its various phases. Besides, dealing with principles for maintenance of health, it has also developed a wide range of therapeutic measures to combat illness. These principles of positive health and therapeutic measures relate to physical, mental, social and spiritual welfare of human beings. Thus Ayurveda becomes one of the oldest systems of health care dealing with both the preventive and curative aspects of life in a most comprehensive way and presents a close similarity to the WHO’s concept of health propounded in the modern era.
A perusal of its several classical treatises indicate presence of two schools of Physicians and Surgeons and eight specialities. These eight disciplines are generally called "Ashtanga Ayurveda" and are :-
Internal Medicine(Kaya Chikitsa)
Paediatrics(Kaumar Bhritya)
Psychiatry( Bhoot Vidya)
Otorhinolaryngology and Ophthalmology(Shalakya)
Surgery( Shalya)
Toxicology( Agad Tantra)
Geriatrics(Rasayana)
Eugenics and aphrodisiacs(Vajikarana)
Compendia on these subjects like Charak Samihta, Sushruta Samhita etc. were written by the ancient scholars during B.C. period. These were used for teaching of Ayurveda in the ancient universities of Takshashila and Nalanda.The Early Beginning
During its early period, it was perhaps the only system of overall healthcare and medicine which served well the people in such crucial areas as health, sickness, life and death. It enjoyed the unquestioned patronage and support of the people and their rulers. This situation promoted maximally the growth of this system. Practically all the systematic ground work of laying down its basic concepts, principles and medicaments took place during this period of Indian history.
The Medieval Period
Then followed a long period of medieval history marked by unsettled political conditions and several invasions from outside the country when Ayurveda faced utter neglect. Its growth was stunted, its teaching and training were stopped from being spread and its monopoly in practice or utilization was eroded greatly by the officially supported systems. Ayurveda barely survived because of its native roots and also because the official systems of medicine could not reach everywhere particularly in widely scattered and difficult rural areas.
The Present Era
The political situation of the country was destined to change in favour of freedom from foreign rule. With the awakening of nationalism and movement for freedom the Indian cultural values and way of life (including health care and sickness cure systems) surfaced again. The patriotic zeal of the people, their leaders and benevolence of the rulers of princely States initiated the revival of Ayurvedic system of medicine even before the country got its freedom. In 1916, the Members of Imperial Legislative Councils pressed the Government to accept this ancient and indigenous system of Ayurveda for developing it on scientific basis and for increasing its usefulness. In 1920, the Indian National Congress demanded Government patronage for Ayurveda and Provincial Governments began to grant assistance. The State and Central Governments appointed several committees to suggest ways and means of rehabilitating this time tested system in the service of the people and promote its further growth following modern scientific parameters and methods. As a result, several States started schools and colleges for training of competent Ayurvedic practitioners with working knowledge of modern medicine.
After, the country became free in 1947, the movement for revival gained additional momentum. The first Health Ministers’ Conference resolved that Ayurveda should be developed and put to use for providing medicare to the people. In due course of time this system got official recognition and became a part of the National Health network of the country. In several ways, the official health policies, national plans and programmes accorded to it the same status as enjoyed by the dominant Allopathic system. At present the system is well set to re-orient itself to modern scientific parameters. Simultaneously, it is well poised for much greater, effective utilization so as to enable the country to reach its goals of Health for all and regulate population growth. In the present situation, Medical Scientists are researching Ayurveda remedies for lifestyle related diseases, degenerative and psychosomatic disorders.
DEFINITION
The classical works on Ayurveda describe it as under :
It is that knowledge of life which deals elaborately and at length with conditions beneficial or otherwise to the humanity, and, to factors conducive to the happiness, or responsible for misery or sorrow besides indicating measures for healthful living for full span of life .
Ayurveda is also considered as ‘Science of life’. This probably makes it the earliest medical science having a positive concept of health to be achieved through a blending of physical, mental, social moral and spiritual welfare.
According to the ancient books of knowledge, health is considered as a prerequisite for achieving the supreme ends of life consisting of righteousness, wealth, artistic values and spiritual freedom. Preventive and curative aspects of diseases are considered as important components of the concept of positive health.
Ayurveda deals elaborately with measures of healthful living during the entire span of life and its various phases. Besides dealing with principles for maintenance of health, it has also developed a wide range of therapeutic measures to combat illness. These principles of positive health and therapeutic measures related to physical, mental, social and spiritual welfare of human beings. Thus Ayurveda became one of the oldest system of medicine dealing with both the preventive and curative aspects of life in a most comprehensive way.




Concepts and Principles
Medicinal Plants Introduction

1. Introduction to Medicinal Plants

2. Medicinal Plants as a part of Culture

3. Distribution

4. Acknowledgement














Introduction to Medicinal Plants
The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimated that 80% of the population of developing countries rely on traditional medicines, mostly plant drugs, for their primary health care needs. Also, modern pharmacopoeia still contain at least 25% drugs derived from plants and many others which are synthetic analogues built on prototype compounds isolated from plants. Demand for medicinal plant is increasing in both developing and developed countries due to growing recognition of natural products, being non-narcotic, having no side-effects, easily available at affordable prices and sometime the only source of health care available to the poor. Medicinal plant sector has traditionally occupied an important position in the socio cultural, spiritual and medicinal arena of rural and tribal lives of India.
Medicinal plants as a group comprise approximately 8000 species and account for around 50% of all the higher flowering plant species of India. Millions of rural households use medicinal plants in a self-help mode. Over one and a half million practitioners of the Indian System of Medicine in the oral and codified streams use medicinal plants in preventive, promotive and curative applications. There are estimated to be over 7800 manufacturing units in India. In recent years, the growing demand for herbal product has led to a quantum jump in volume of plant materials traded within and across the countries. An estimate of the EXIM Bank puts the international market of medicinal plants related trade at US$ 60 billion per year growing at the rate of 7% only. Though India has a rich biodiversity, the growing demand is putting a heavy strain on the existing resources.
While the demand for medicinal plants is growing, some of them are increasingly being threatened in their natural habitat. For meeting the future needs cultivation of medicinal plant has to be encouraged.
According to an all India ethnobiological survey carried out by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, there are over 8000 species of plants being used by the people of India. Figure 1 and 2 represents the plant in various Indian systems of medicine and the overlap of plant used across the medical systems.


Medicinal Plants as a Part of Culture
It is evident that the Indian people have a tremendous passion for medicinal plants and use them for a wide range of health related applications from a common cold to memory improvement and treatment of poisonous snake bites to a cure for muscular distrophy and the enhancement of body’s general immunity. In the oral traditions local communities in every ecosystem from the trans himalayas down to the coastal plains have discovered the medical uses of thousands of plants found locally in their ecosystem. India has one of the richest plant medical culture in the world. It is a culture that is of tremendous contemporary relevance because it can on one hand ensure health security to millions of people and on the other hand it can provide new and safe herbal drugs to the entire world. There are estimated to be around 25000 effective plant based formulations are available in the indigenous medical texts.formulations used in folk medicine and known to rural communities all over India and around 10000 designed




Distribution
Macro analysis of the distribution of medicinal plants show that they are distributed across diverse habitats and landscape elements. Around 70% of India’s medicinal plants are found in tropical areas mostly in the various forest types spread across the Western and Eastern ghats, the Vindhyas, Chotta Nagpur plateau, Aravalis & Himalayas. Although less than 30% of the medicinal plants are found in the temperate and alpine areas and higher altitudes they include species of high medicinal value. Macro studies show that a larger percentage of the known medicinal plant occur in the dry and moist deciduous vegetation as compared to the evergreen or temperate habitats.
Analysis of habits of medicinal plants indicate that they are distributed across various habitats. One third are trees and an equal portion shrubs and the remaining one third herbs, grasses and climbers. A very small proportion of the medicinal plants are lower plants like lichens, ferns algae, etc. Majority of the medicinal plant are higher flowering plants.
Distribution of medicinal plants by habits
Of the 386 families and 2200 genera in which medicinal plants are recorded, the families Asteraceae. Euphorbiacae. Laminaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae., Poaceae, Acanthaceae, Rosaceae and Apiaceae share the larger proportion of medicinal plant species with the highest number of species (419) falling under Asteraceae.
About 90% of medicinal plant used by the industries are collected from the wild. While over 800 species are used in production by industry, less than 20 species of plants are under commercial cultivation. Over 70% of the plant collections involve destructive harvesting because of the use of parts like roots, bark, wood, stem and the whole plant in case of herbs (See figure 5). This poses a definite threat to the genetic stocks and to the diversity of medicinal plants if biodiversity is not sustainably used.
Break up of medicinal plant by their parts utilised



Acknowledgement
The Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy thankfully acknowledges the services rendered by Dr. D.N. Tiwari, Chairman of the Task Force on Conservation and Sustainable use of Medicinal Plants.
Many information in this section is taken from the Report of the task force.

. CLINICAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME:
\The Council has carried out Clinical studies on Vishama Jvara (Malaria), Apasmara (Epilepsy), Vata Vyadhis (Neuromuscular disorders), Tamak Shvasa (Bronchial Asthma), Parinamsula (Peptic ulcer), Yakrit Roga (Liver disorder) Guda Roga (Anarectal diseases), Paurush Granthi Vriddhi (Enlargement of Prastati), Mutrashmari (Urolithiasis), Arbuda (Cancer), Kitibha (Psoriasis), Medoroga (Obesity), Hridroga (Ischaemic Heart Diseases), Kamala (Infective hepatitis) etc.
During the course of execution of these studies the Council has developed formulation like Ayush-64 for Malaria, Ayush-56 for Epilepsy, 777 Oil for Psoriasis, Ayush-55 for Medoroga, Ayush-82 for Madhumeha and has standardized special treatment techniques like Kshar Sutra, Panchakarma and Amashya Shodhan Chikitsa.
II. HEALTH CARE RESEARCH PROGRAMME:
Under this category, the Council has taken up Service-Oriented Survey and Surveillance Program, Community Health Care Research Program and Tribal Health Care Research to provide medicine facilities to the Villagers/Tribal people at their doorsteps and to collect data on health status of the people covered under these programs as follows:
a. Survey and Surveillance Research Program (MCRU)
i) No. of Villages covered 678
ii) Population covered 7,81,68
iii) Incidental medical aid 2,52,083
b. Community Health Care Research Program (CHC)
i) No. of Villages covered 551
ii) Population covered 5,34,364
iii) Medical aid provided 1,12,249
c. Tribal Health Care Research Program (THCRP)
i) Tribal Projects 9
ii) Tribal Pockets covered 478
iii) Population covered 4,21,529
iv) Incidental Medical aid 3,15,960 provided.
v) Tribal Folklore claims 600
III. DRUG RESEARCH:
a. Medico-botanical Survey
i- Survey conducted in 22 states
ii- Forest areas covered 300 forests div./district
iii- Total no.of herbarium specimens 51 lakh collected.
iv- Raw drugs/museum samples 1,600 collected.
v- Folklore claims (Rural & Tribal) 2,600 collected.
vi- Publication : Articles 400 Monographs 17
vii- Data base on medicinal plants 1st Vol.in used in Ayurveda press
b. Cultivation of Medicinal Plants (at five herbal gardens):
i) Total area - 232 acres
ii) Area under cultivation - 135.5 areas
iii) No. of species of drugs - 1,200
iv) No. of species of drugs - 409 of Ayurvedic Formulary of India
Some important plants being cultivated are Guggulu (14,000 plants), Saffron (21-74 gms., annual yield), Ashwagandha, Tagar, Sarpagandha, Kalmegha, Kumari, Daruharidra etc.
c. Plant Tissue Culture:
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory at JNAMP&H, Pune is studying on seed germination, phytochemical investigation, TLC studies and in vitro propagation for rapid multiplications of medicinal plants especially endangered, threatened, non habitat and slow growing plants species. Presently six drugs viz., Shalparni, Guggulu, Banafsha, Prasarini, Brahmi and Sariva are being studied.
d. Chemical Research Program:
i) Phytochemical studies carried out on – 300 drugs
ii) Monograph published ‘Phytochemical
Investigation of Medicinal Plants’ on - 220 drugs
iii) Process Patents - 15
N.B. The patents /know-how were assigned to NRDC for commercial exploitation.
e. Pharmacognostical Research Program:
i) Pharmacognostical investigations done on - 170 drugs
ii) Monographs published on - 3 volumes
Pharmacognostical studies.
f. Pharmacological/Toxicological Research Studies:
i) Pharmacological studies done on - 370 drugs
ii) Monographs published on 227 drugs - One
iii) Monographs published on Pharmacological - One Study on Guggulu
g. Drug Standardisation Research Program:
i) Physico-chemical values/data laid down on - 500 single drugs
ii) Standardisation of formulations - 50 formulations
iii) Monograph published on Pharmacopoeial - One
Standards of Ayurvedic formulations.
IV. MUSK DEER BREEDING PROGRAMME:
a) Total Area - 2 acres
b) Altitude - 2280 mtrs.
(Mehrori, Dharamgarh, Almorha UP)
c) Animals - 16 adults
V. LITERARY RESEARCH:
a) Translation & Publication of books under - 15 Drug & Cosmetic Act
b) Monographs published on Clinical studies - 19 Annexure-II
c) Monographs published on Medico-ethno- - 17
botanical Survey Program.
Quarterly periodicals:
i) JRAS, BMEBR & BIIHM - 3
ii) News Letter - 1
Video films produced - 5
VI. FAMILY WELFARE RESEARCH PROGRAMME:
a) Pharmacological Screening conducted on - 25 drugs
b) Clinical Screening conducted on - 12 recipes
c) Special multicentric clinical trial on - 1 drug
Pippalyadi Yoga, an effective Ayurvedic Antifertility drug is being carried out at AIIMS, New Delhi; PGI, Chandigarh; JIPMER, Pondicherry and KEM&H, Mumbai to include it in National Anti-Fertility Program.
VII. AMCHI MEDICINO RESEARCH PROGRAMME:
a) Literary Research - 22 tests were located
b) Bibliography of Tibetan Medicine on - 170 references Internet contains.
c) Clinical studies on - 25 diseases
VIII. EXTRA-MURAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME:
A clinical trial is being conducted with an Ayurvedic drug on Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APML).
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia and Formulary
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
Ayurveda, being one of the oldest system of medicine, can be expected to have a very rich and varied information about the drugs and their therapeutic uses. It is said to have over 100 books containing more than 1 lakhs recipes. Reputed scholars have independently documented these recipes in their published works. Besides these, there exists a much larger number of unpublished recipes which are in use in every day practice in different regions of this vast country. While this richness is to be taken note of, it introduces the problem of scientific standardization and uniformity as of very crucial importance for the growth of the system, and to protect the interests of the consumers of these drugs and recipes. Pharmacopoeial standards of 258 single plant drugs have been evolved by the scientists working in Pharmacopoeial Laboratary of Indian Medicine (PLIM). These are duly approved by the Ayurveda pharmacopoeia Committee and Govt. of India. Three volumes of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia have been published by Govt. of India. The work on remaining single drugs of plant, animal, mineral/ metal and marine origin and multi-ingredients formulations is being carried out in 30 laboratories of different institutions.
Materia Medica and Formulary of Ayurvedic Drugs:
The Materia Medica of Ayurveda consists of an extremely rich armamentarium of natural drugs, derived from the plants , minerals, animals and marine sources. These drugs are used singly or in simple combinations or as compounds also otherwise referred as polypharmaceuticals. The forms in which these are used are varied like extracted juices, decoctions, infusions, distillates, powders, tablets, pills, confections, syrups, fermented liquids, medicated oil, bhasmas (resultant of incineration) and many more. Materia Medica of any medical system by nature is very technical and complex. This is also a publication for common people, which describes simple and safe proved remedies for common ailments. Nothing can be more successful than involving the community in community health and medicare. With the help of this popular publication the community members or any member of the family can intelligently apply the formulary for giving conditions with advantage without waiting till the doctor comes. This, however, does not preclude seeking consultation of a competent physician when required. Ayurvedic Formulary of India in volumes I and II containing 444 and 192 formulations respectively has been published by Govt. of India.

TARGET & ACHIEVEMENT:
a) Single Drugs:-
Total number Single Drugs for Pharmacopoeia Study 600
Work done so far.
AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA:
I
Part-I, volume I
80 monograph (Published)
II
Part-I, Volume II
78 monograph( Published)
III
Part-I, Volume III
100 monograph (Ready for Press)

Total
258 monograph
b) compound preparation:-
AYURVEDIC FORMULARY OF INDIA:
I
Part-I, (English & Hindi version)
444 compound formulations (Published)
II
Part-I, (Hindi version)
192 compound formulations) (Published)
III
Part-II,(Eng. Version)
192 compound formulation ) (In the Press)

Total
636 compound formulation
Work in progress
I 50 monographs for Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India part-I, Volume IV is under
preparation on various stages in APC/PLIM.
II 32 Laboratories/Institutions are engaged in developing phamacopoeial standards of Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha drugs under central scheme of APC. Under this scheme 387 single, drugs of plant mineral/animal, origin of Ayurvedic,Unani & Siddha were allocated to them. Out of which data on 196 drugs has been developed. The work will be scrutinise by Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani Pharmacopoeia Committees.
196 Ayurvedic compound formulations and 133 Unani compound formulations were also allocated to these laboratories. Samples of these compound formulations are being prepared by the Units of CCRAS, CCRUM, IMPCL,NIA Jaipur, Gujarat Ayurveda University Jam Nagar, Arya Vaidya sala Kottakkal, and Ausadhi pharmaceuticals corporation of Kerala.

Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee was constituted in 1963 with the following objectives:-
1. To prepare an Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India of single & Compound drugs.
2.To prescribe the working standards for compound Ayurvedic Formulations including tests for identity, purity, and quality So as to ensure uniformity of the finished formulations.
3. Keeping in view the time constraint, to identify such methods, procedures and of plan of work enable the formulary and standards of all commonly used drugs to be brought out in a phased manner.
4. To prepare remaining parts of the official formulary of compound Preparations from the classical texts listed with 1st Schedule of the Drugs & Cosmetics Act including standardised compositions, method of preparations, dosage, toxicity and administrations with various anupanas of vehicles.
5. The term of the Committee shall be for a period of 3 years from the date of its first meeting and the members shall hold office for that period..
6.The Chairman of the Committee shall have the powers to form Sub-Committee whenever required and to co-opt experts from Out side such sub-committees.
7.The Committee will have the power to frame rules and procedures of Functioning.

Chairman.
Dr. Sanjeeva Rao, 5-8-293 A, Mahesh Nagar, Chirag Ali Lane, Hyderabad – 500001 –
Members
The Director, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Anushandhan Bhawan, 61-65, Institutional Area, Opp-D-Block Janak Puri, New Delhi.
The Director, Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine, C.G.O. Complex, Kamla Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad, - 201002.
Managing Director Indian Medicine Pharmaceutical Corp. Ltd., Mohan, Via Ramnagar, Distt. Almorah, (U.P.)
Prof. S.S. Handa, F-7, Lajpat Nagar-III, New Delhi.
Miss Savita Satakopan, 4, Seventh Street, Nanganallur, Chennai – 600 001.
Vaid Devendra Triguna, 143, Sarai Kale Khan, New Delhi.
Vd. B. Vaidyanathan, No. 1, Ganapathy, Ist Street, Hawai Nagar, Thiruvanmiyar, Chennai-600041.
Dr. D.B. Anantha Narayana, 262, Pocket-L, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi – 110044.
Prof. D.S. Lucas, 324, 6th Mani, 2nd Cross, Vijaya Nagar, Bangalore-560040.
Prof. V.V. Prasad, Head, Deptt. of Dravyaguna, Ayurvedic College, Tirupati (A.P.)
Dr. C.K. Kaliyar, Dabur Research Foundation, 22, Site IV, Sahibabad – 201010.
Dr. M.A. Iyengar, Prof. Of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal – 576119.
Dr. M.K. Raina, 203, Rainbow Apartments, Raheja Vihar, Powali, Bombay – 400 072.
Dr. Balaji Tambe, Chairman, Ahmasantulan, Village 6, P.O. KARLA, Pune – 410405, Maharashtra.
Dr. M.S. Ansari, 454-E, Kaila, Behind Masjid, Ghaziabad (U.P.), 201001.
The Drug Controller General (India), New Delhi.
Dr. S.K. Sharma, Adviser Ayurveda, Dept. of ISM & H, Ministry of Health & F.W., Govt. of India – Member Secretary.



Members of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Drug Technical Advisory Board (ASUDTAB)
Advisory Body Under The Drugs & Cosmetic ACT
Chairman.
Dr. S.P. Aggarwal, General of Health Services, Government of India, New Delhi –
Members
The Drug Controller General (India), New Delhi.
Joint Secretary, (Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,
The Director, Central Drugs Laboratory, Calcutta.
The Director, Pharmacopoeial Laboaratory for Indian Medicines, Ghaziabad (U.P.)
Km. Savita Satakopan, 4, Seventh Street, Nanganallur, Chennai – 600 001.
Prof. S.S. Handa, F – 7, Lajpat Nagar – III, New Delhi.
Dr. Sanjeeva Rao, Sri Sai Krupa, 5-8-293/A, Mahesh Nagar, Chirag Ali Lane, Hyderabad – 500001(A.P.)
Dr. D.B. Anantha Narayana, 262, Pocket-L, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi – 110044.
Hakeem Sayed Khaleefatuallh, 49, Bharati Salai, Chennai – 600 005.
Dr. R. Kannan, Priya Nursing Home, Tennur, Trichirapalli – 620 017(Tamil Nadu).
Dr. V.K. Joshi, Reader, Deptt. of Dravyaguna, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.)
Dr. S.M. Jafri, Reader, Ayurved & Unani Tibbia College, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-110005.
Dr. Arunachalam, Government Siddha Medical College, Chennai – 600 106.
Dr. Gangadharan, Coimbatore Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Coimbatore, (T.N.)
Secretary, Indian Medical Practitioners Cooperative Pharmacy and Stores, Thiruvanmiur, Chennai – 600041 (T.N.)
Managing Director, Hamdard, New Delhi (Unani Pharmaceuticals)
Vaid Devendra Triguna, 143, Sarai Kale Khan, New Delhi.
Dr. A.J. Khan, Reader, Ayurved and Unani Tibbia College, Karol Bagh, New Delhi –110005.
Dr. G. Ganapati, Government Siddha Medical College, Chennai (T.N.).
Dr. S.K. Sharma, Adviser Ayurveda, Dept. of ISM & H, Ministry of Health & F.W., Govt. of India – Member Secretary.



List
Medicines



Essential Drugs List







Simple Remedies







Essential Ayurvedic Drugs For Dispenseries & Hospitals
Ayurvedic system of medicine holds numerous single and multi-ingredient formulations made up of herbal, mineral and herbo-mineral combinations. Their use by the Ayurvedic practitioners varies to a large extent. While some formulations being so frequently prescribed in one part of the country may not find place in the prescription of the other part. Region-wise traditions of Ayurvedic practice is also one of the important causes of popularity of certain medicines in one particular region. Interestingly, the uses of Ayurvedic formulations are also so diverse that some times not only the patients but doctors too get confused in situations where a medicine not indicated in a specific disease condition is prescribed by the Ayurvedist solely because of his own experience of treating that particular disease condition with that very medicine. Though, it is rightly claimed hat the medicines hahve certain limit of actions yet the physician with his judicious approach can use one particular medicine for various clinically diverse diseases or symptoms provided he is well versed with underlying pathogenetic condition of the ailment and simultaneously has the understanding of complete range of action and scope of the drug. Such guidelines for varied uses of medicines are already described in the classical texts of Ayurveda.
List of ASU medicines procured in various States differ so much and some of the departments and institutions have restricted its number to too little to cover the variety of disease condition.
In view of this and the administrative problems being faced for selection the Adyurvedic drugs for a dispensary or a hospital, the need was felt to create a standard list of optimally required medicines likely to be acceptable to the practitioners all over the country, who would be able to prescribe the enlisted medicines in a judicious way.
The Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy, took initiative in this direction and the concerted efforts of various experts of Ayurveda and departmental technical staff members have resulted in bringing out this document – "Essential Ayurveda Drugs for Dispensaries and Hospitals". It is worthwhile to mention that Essential Ayurvedic Drugs List is notably different from Essential Drugs List of Allopathic System of Medicine. The former includes only those medicines which are essentially required in any Ayurvedic dispensary or hospital whereas the latter one is the list of essential drugs for the treatment of various clinical states of the patients.
The bid to formulate Essential Ayurveda Drugs List got through with great deal of interaction with various eminent Ayurvedic Physicians in Government and private sectors in different parts of the country. Due care was undertaken to include experts (Annexure-A) from all fronts of Ayurveda, like institutionally & non-institutionally qualified Ayurvedists, old & new Ayurvedic doctors, dispensary and hospital doctors, college and pharmacy attached doctors, graduates and postgraduates. The response from these experts was compiled, analysed and put in a systematic format. Then a core group comprising technical officers of the department and a renowned Ayurvedist as a private sector representative (Annexure-B) discussed in details for final selection of essential drugs for Ayurvedic dispensaries and hospitals, on the basis of availability, reliability, cost-efficacy and therapeutic efficacy of the medicines. Due scrutiny was done for short-listing. Ample care was taken to cover maximum disease conditions treatable with Ayurvedic medicines. Classical Ayurvedic texts, formulary of Ayurvedic drugs published by Govt. of India and personal experience of the Vaidyas were considered for finalising the list.
The present publication aims at providing ready reference for selection or procurement of Ayurvedic drugs for dispensaries and hospitals of various levels. Its utility is much higher for the learners and practitioners of Ayurveda as it will provide a window to peep into the wide range of Ayurvedic medicines required for setting up their professional establishments. The single drug preparations in the end of the list are incorporated to fill the gaps left in the original list for different kinds of uses of simple remedies in a cost effective manner.

Sl. NO.
Name of the Drug (Please see Book Reference in
the index)
Dose
(1) JWARA (FEVER)
1:1 Navajwara (Acute fever)

Tribhuvan Kiriti Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Sanjivani Vati
125 to 250 mg.

Godanti Mishrana
125 to 250 mg.
1:2 Visamajwara (Malarial fever)

Ayush 64
500 mg. To 1 gm.

Saptaparna ghana Vati
250mg. To 500 mg.

Sudarshana Churna
3 to 6 gm.
1:3 Vat shlaishmika jwara (Viral fever)

Laksmi Vilas Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Samsamani Vati
500mg. to 1 gm.
1:4 Jirna jwara (Chronic fever)

Pratap Lankeshvar Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Mahasudarsana Churna
3 to 6 gm.

Amritarishta
20 to 30 ml.
1:5 Sannipatika jwara (Typhoid fever)

Nardiya luxmi Vilas Ras
250 to 500 mg.

Bhunimbadi Kwath
10 to 20 ml.
(2) DISORDERS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
2:1 Kas (Cough)

Gojihvadi Kvath
20 to 40 ml.

Sitopaladi Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Kantakaryavaleha
5 to 10 ml.
2:2 Kapha nissarana (Expectorant)

Tankana Bhasma
500 mg. to 1 gm.

Talisadi Churna
3 to 5 gm.

Vasavaleha
5 to 10 gm.
2:3 Svasanika Soth (Bronchitis)

Laghu malini Vasanta
125 to 250 mg.

Lavangadi Churna
3 to 5 gm.

Chounsath prahari pipal
500 mg. to 2gm.
2:4 Rajyakshma

Raj Mrigank Rasa
125 to 250 mg.

Svarna Basant Malati Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Abhrak Bhasma Shatputi
0.75 to 125 mg.

Mukta Panchamrit
125 to 250 mg.

Shilajatwadi louha
250 to 500 mg.
2:5 Pratisyaya (Common cold)

Hinguleshwar Rasa
125 to 250 mg.

Panchakola Churna
2 to 5 gm.
2:6 Peenas (Sinusitis)

Shadbindu Tel
2 to 5 drops in nose

Dashmula Rasayanam
5 to 15 gm.
2:7 Tundikeri sotha (Tonsilitis)

Ksara Madhu
Throat paint

Khadiradi Vati
2 to 4 tab.

Vyoshadi Vati
2 to 4 tab.
2:8 Shvasa (Asthma)

Dhanvantar Gutika
1 to 2 pills

Pushkarmula Churna
5 to 15 gm.

Shringyadi Churna
5 to 15 gm.

Kanakasava
10 to 30 ml.

Vasarishta
10 to 30 ml.
(3) DISORDERS OF CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM
3:1 Hrid-Daurabalya (Cardiac weakness)

Nagarjunabhra Rasa
250 to 500 mg.

Muktapisti
125 to 250 mg.

Jwahar Mohra
125 to 250 mg.

Arjunarishta
10 to 30 ml.
3:2 Rakta Chap (Hypertension)

Yogendra Rasa
50 to 125 mg.

Sarpagandha Mishran
2-4 Pills
3:3 Raktabhar Alpta (Hypotension)

Makaradhvaja gutika
50 to 125 mg.

Kasturi bhairav Ras
50 to 125 mg.
3:4 Hritshoola (Angina)

Sringa Bhasma
125 to 250 mg.

Mahavat Raj Ras
75 to 125 mg.
(4) BLOOD DISORDERS
4:1 Pandu Anemia

Punarnavadi Mandura
½ to 1 gm.

Lohasava
10 to 30 ml.
4:2 Raktpitta/Raktsrav Haemorrhagic Tendency and Bleeding Disorders

Trin Kantmani Pisti
250 to 500 mg.

Lakshadi Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Usheerasava
15 to 30 ml.
4.3 Rakta Dushti (Blood impurity)

Nimbadi Kvatha
20 TO 40 ml.

Panchanimba Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Manjisthadi Churna
5 to 15 gm.

Sarivadyasava
15 to 30 ml.

Khadirarishta
15 to 30 ml.
(5) DISORDERS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
5.1Atisara (Diarrhoea)

Karpoora Rasa
50 to 125 mg

Jatiphaladya Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Karpoorasava
10 to 20 drops

Babbularishta
15 to 30 ml.
5:2 Pravahika (Dysentery)

Panchamrit Parpati
250 to 500 mg.

Bilwadi Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Bilwadi Kwath
20 to 40 ml.

Kutajarishta
15 to 30 ml.
5:3 Amlapitta (Hyperacidity)

Kamdudha Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Dhatri Rasayana
5 to 15 gm.

Madhuyastyadi Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Avipattikara Churna
5 to 10 gm.
5:4 Samgrahani (Colitis/Ulcerative Colitis)

Samkhodar Ras
75 to 150 mg.

Sutsekhar Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Bilwadi Avaleha
5 to 10 gm.

Mocharas Churna
3 to 5 gm.
5:5 Yakrit roga (Liver disorders)

Arogya Vardhini
500 mg. To 1 gm.

Navayas Louha
250 to 500 mg.

Phalatrikadi kwatha
15 to 30 ml.

Sarbat phalasa
30 to 50 ml.

Daruharidra phala churna
5 to 10 gm.

Rohitakarishta
15 to 30 ml.
5:6 Shoola (Abdominal colic)

Shankha bhasma
250 to 500 mg.

Shankha Vati
2 to 4 tab.

Lasunadi Vati
2 to 4 tab.

Hingu vachadi Churna
3 gm. to 5 gm.

Narikel lavana
250 to 500 mg.
5:7 Adhman (Flatulence)

Kankayan Vati
500 mg. to 1 gm.

Hingvastaka Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Ark Ajmod
5 to 15 ml.

Lavana Bhaskar Churna
5 to 10 gm.
5:8 Chhardi (Vomiting)

Mayur pichha bhasma
50 to 125 mg.

Bilvadi leham
1 to 3 gm. 2 hrly

Eladi Churna
2 to 5 gm.
5:9 Ajirna (Indigestion)

Yavani Sandhav Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Shivakshara pachana churna
3 to 5 gm.

Chitrakadi Vati
2 to 4 tab.
5:10 Agnimandya (Anorexia)

Agnitundi Vati
250 to 500 mg.

Vaishvanara Churna
3 to 5 gm.

Panchakola Churna
3 to 5 gm.
5:11 Vibandh (Constipation)

Ichhabhedi Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Panchasakara Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Svadista Virechana Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Abhayarishta
15 to 30 ml.

Isabgol Husk
10 to 20 gm.

Haritaki Churna
10 to 15 gm.
5:12 Arsha-Bhagander (Piles and Fistula-in-ano)

Shigru guggul
500 mg. to 1 gm..

Bol baddha ras
125 to 250 gm.

Pranada Vati
2 to 4 tab.

Rasanjana Vati
½ to 1 gm.

Kasisadi tel
2 to 5 ml.

Jaya Vati
250 to 500 mg.

Kshar Sutra & Kshar Varti
Q.S. for Kriya
5:13 Krimi Rog (Helminthiasis)

Vidangadi louha
½ to 1 gm.

Palash beej churna
3 to 6 gm.

Kampillaka yog
2 to 4 gm.
(6) DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
6:1 Medhya (Brain Tonics for concentration, memory, sleep disturbances)

Brahmi Vati
2 to 4 tab.

Tagaradi Churna
3 to 5 gm.

Brahmi Rasayana
5 to 10 gm.

Saraswatarishta
15 to 30 ml.

Brahami Ghrita
5 to 10 gm.
6:2 Nadi Dourbalya (Nervine Weakness)

Krishna Chaturmukh Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Dhanvantara tel
Q.S. for body Application

Mahanarayana tel
Q.S. for body Application

Eranda pak
5 to 15 gm.

Balarishta
10 to 30 ml.
6:3 Kampavat ( Parkinsonism)

Chaturbhuj Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Kaunch Churna
2 to 5 gm.
6:4 Sirasula (Migrain)

Sirah shooladi Vajra Ras
250 mg. to 1 gm.

Chandrakant Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Godanti praval yog
500 mg. to 1 gm.

Pathyadi kwath
10 to 20 ml.
(7) PHYCHIATRIC PROBLEMS
7:1 Anidra (Insomnia)

Nidrodaya Ras
125 to 500 mg.

Jatamansi kwath
10 to 20 ml

Madananand Modak
5 to 15 gm.

Aswagandha Churna
5 to 10 gm.

Him sagar Tel
Q.S. for Head
7:2 Akshepa (Convulsive Disorders)

Svarna bhasma
15 to 30 mg.

Panchagavya ghrita
5 to 15 ml.

Aptantrakari Vati
125 to 250 mg.
7:3 Unmad (Psychosis)

Unmad gajkesari Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Maha paishachik ghrita
5 to 15 gm.

Maha chaitasa ghrita
5 to 15 gm.

Manas mitra vatak
125 to 250 mg.
7:4 Vishad (Depression)

Jyotismati Tel
10 to 20 drops

Smriti Sagar Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Vacha Churna (shudh)
250 to 500 mg.
(8) JOINT DISORDERS
8:1 Amavat (Rheumatic/Rheumatoid Arthritis)

Amavatari Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Trayodashang guggulu
½ to 1 gm.

Kottamchukadi Tel
Q.S. for application on body
8:2 Vat Rakta (Gout)

Kaishore guggulu
½ to 1 gm.

Maharasnadi kwath
5 to 15 ml.

Pinda Tel
Q.S. for application on body
8:3 Sandhi Vat (Osteoarthritis)

Simhnad guggulu
½ to 1 gm.

Yograj guggulu
½ to 1 gm.

Panchaguna Tel
Q.S. for application on joints
8:4 Sandhigat Vat (Arthralgia)

Vatari guggulu
½ to 1 gm.

Sameergaj keshari Ras
125 to 250 mg.

Maha vishgarbh Tel
Q.S. for topical use
(9) DISEASES OF URINARY SYSTEM
9:1 Alpa Mutrajanana (Oliguria/Anuria)

Punarnavastaka kwath
20 to 40 ml.

Panavirladi bhasma
5 to 20 gm.

Punarnavasava
15 to 30 ml.
9:2 Ashmari (Urolithiasis)

Pasan Bhedadi Kwath
20 to 40 ml.

Hajaral yahood bhasma
250 to 500 mg.

Kulathadi ghrita
10 to 20 ml.
9:3 Mutrastheela (prostatic hypertrophy)

Varunadi guggulu
½ to 1 gm.

Shilajtwadi Vati
½ to 1 gm.

Punarnavadi Guggulu
½ to 1 gm.
9:4 Mutravishmayata (Uraemia)

Sarbato Bhadra Ras
50 to 250 mg.

Veeratarvadi kwath
20 to 40 ml.

Trina panchmula kwath
20 to 40 ml.

Kanmad bhasma
500 mg. to 1.5 gm.

Vastyamayantaka ghrita
5 to 15 gm.
9:5 Mutra krichra (Dysurea)

Svarna Bang
125 to 250 mg.

Chandrakala Ras
250 to 500 mg.

Traikantakadi kwath
20 to 40 ml.
(10) DERMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS
10:1 Kushtha (Dermatoses)

Ras Manikya
125 to 150 mg.

Gandhaka Rasayana
250 mg. to 500 mg.

Eladi Tel
Q.S. for topical use

Kustha Rakshasa Tel
Q.S. for topical use
10:2 Twak-Karshnya (Hyperpigmentation)

Kumkumadi Tel
Q.S. for topical use

Dashanga Lepa
Q.S. for topical use
10:3 Kandu (Pruritus)

Haridra Khand
5 to 15 gm.

Bilwadi gutika
1 to 2 pills for topical use

Nalpamaradi Tel
Q.S. for topical use

Maha Marichyadi Tel
Q.S. for topical use
10:4 Twak Vaivarnya (Skin Discolouration)

Chalmongra Tel
Q.S. for topical use

Sidhmahara Lepa
Q.S. for topical use

Markava Rasayanan
10 to 20 gm.
10:5 Keshya (Hair Tonic for Poor Hair Growth)

Bhringaraja Tel
Q.S. for head & hair
10:6 Khalitya (Premature Hair fall)

Dhasturpatra Ker Tel
Q.S. for head & hair

Durvadi Ker Tel
Q.S. for head & hair

Kayyonyadi Ker Tal
Q.S. for head & hair
10:7 Palitya (Premature greying of hair)

Neeli Bhringyadi Ker Tel
Q.S. for head & hair

Kuntal Kanti Tel
Q.S. for head & hair
10:8 Svitra (Vitiligo)

Kakodumbarikadi Kwath
10 to 40 ml.

Markava Rasayana
5 to 15 gm.

Avalgujadi Lepa
Q.S. for topical use

Gomutrarishta
10 to 20 ml.
(11) FEMALE DISEASES
11:1 Asrigdara Menorrhagia-Metrorrhagia)

Pradarantak Ras
250 to 500 mg.

Patrangasav
10 to 30 ml.

Lodhrasava
10 to 30 ml.

Ashokarishta
10 to 30 ml.
11:2 Svet Pradara (Leucorrhoea)
202.
Kukkutand Twak Bhasma
1 to 3 gm.
203.
Pusyanug Churna
5 to 10 gm.
204.
Supari Pak
5 to 15 gm.
205.
Satavari gud
5 to 15 gm.
206.
Panchavalkala kwath
10 to 30 for douche
11:3 Rajah Krichra (Dysmenorrhoea)
207.
Rajah Pravartini Vati
250 to 500 mg.
208.
Kumarika Vati
250 to 500 mg.
209.
Kumaryasava
10 to 30 ml.
11:4 Yoni Vyapat (Vaginal Disorders)
210.
Subhakari Vati
½ to 1 gm.
211.
Somanath Ras
125 to 250 mg.
212.
Soubhagya Vardhana Tel
5 to 10 drops for Tampon
11:5 Rajah Purva Tanav (Premenstrual Tension)
213.
Yavakshara Yog
500 mg. To 1.5 gm.
214.
Saptasaram Kasayam
10 to 20 ml.
11:6 Garbhapat (Habitual Abortion)
215.
Garbhapal Ras
250 to 500 mg.
216.
Garbh Raksini Gutika
2 to 4 tab.
11:7 Raktla Yoni (Dynfunctional Uterire Bleeding D.U.B.)
217.
Kaharuva Pisti
250 to 500 mg.
218.
Ashok Ghrita
5 to 15 gm.
219.
Lakshmana Louha
500 mg. To 1 gm.
11:8 Stanya alpata (Hypo lactation)
220.
Stanya janana kashaya
10 to 20 ml.
221.
Shatavaryadi Churna
5 to 10 gm.
11:9 Sutika Roga (Postpartal Disorders)
222.
Soubhagya Sunthi
5 TO 10 gm.
223.
Dashmularishta
15 TO 30 ml.
11:10 Bandhyatva (Primary Sterlity)
224.
Phala Kalyan Ghrita
5 to 15 gm.
225.
Palash puspasava
15 to 30 ml.
226.
Lakshmanarishta
15to 30 ml.
11:11 Stri Beej Pranali Dushti (Hypo-ovarianism/Poor ovarian funcion)
227.
Puspa Dhanva Ras
250 to 500 mg.
11:12 Beej Kosh Puti (Ovarian Cyst)
228.
Siggru Gugglu
½ to 1 gm.
229.
Sobhanjanarishta
10 to 30 ml.
230.
Punarnava Mandur
250 to 500 mg.
(12) VAJEEKARANA (SEXUAL WEAKNESS/LOSS OF LIBIDO)
231.
Manmath Rasa
125 to 250 mg.
232.
Akarkarbhadi Gutika
1 to 2 tab
233.
Asvagandhadi Leha
5 to 15 gm.
234.
Sukrastambhana Rasayana
5 to 15 gm.
235.
Srigopal Tel
For topical use
236.
Kamini Vidravana Ras
250 to 500 mg.
(13) RASAYANA (GERENTOLOGICAL CONDITIONS)
237.
Brahm Rasayana
5 to 15 gm.
238.
Chyavan Prasha Avaleha
5 to 15 gm.
239.
Brinhani Gutika
1 to 2 tab.
(14) VRANA ROPANA (WOUND HEALING)
240.
Jatyadi Tel
For topical use
241.
Marma Gutika
250 to 500 mg.
242.
Triphala Guggulu
250 to 500 mg.
243.
Lakshadi Guggulu
250 to 500 mg.
244.
Yashad Malhar
Q.S. For topical use
245.
Manjishtadi Tel
Q.S. For topical use
(15) DISEASES OF EYE AND ENT
15:1 Netra Roga (Opthalmic Disorders)
246.
Saptamrit Louha
2 to 4 tab.
247.
Maha triphala Ghrita
5 to 15 gm.
248.
Chandrodaya Varti
Q.S. For topical use
249.
Elaneer kuzhampu
2 to 5 drops topical use
250.
Shatpatryark (Gulab Arka)
2 to 5 drops topical use
15:2 Nasa Roga (Nasal Diseases)
251.
Anu tel
2 to 5 drops as nassal drop
252.
Nasika Churna
½ to 1 gm. topical use
253.
Chitrak haritaki
5 to 15 gm.
254.
Katphal Churna
½ to 1 gm. topical use
15:4 Galganda (Goitre)
257.
Kanchanara Guggulu
500 mg. To 1 gm.
15:5 Mukh Rog (Oral Disorders)
258.
Pitaka Churna
Q.S. for gargle
259.
Sudh Soubhagya
Q.S. for paint
260.
Irimedadi Tel
Q.S. for paint
261.
Brihatyadi Kwath
Q.S. for gargle
15:6 Dant Roga (Dental Problems)
262.
Dasana Samskar Churna
Q.S. for local rubbing in tooth & gum
(16) PRAJANAN SAMSTHAN DUSTHTI (REPRODUCTORY PROBLEMS)
16:1 Purush Prajanan Akshamta (Male sterility)
263.
Jund Vadastar Vati
2 to 3 pill
264.
Puspadhanva Ras
125 to 250 mg.
16:2 Stri Prajanan Akshamta (Female sterility)
265.
Jiyapota Churna
5 to 15 gm.
266.
Sivalingi Beej
3 seed daily for 28 days
16:3 Parivar Niyojana (Contraception)
267.
Pipplyadi Yog
2 to 4 gm.
268.
Neem Tel
2 to 5 ml.
(17) DAURBALYA (General weakness/Asthenia/Loss of strength)
269.
Drakshasava
5 to 30 ml.
270.
Sudh Shilajit
250 to 500 mg.
271.
Phalasava
10 to 30 ml.
272.
Tapyadi Louha
250 to 500 mg.
(18) METABOLIC DISORDERS)
18:1 Madhumeha (Diabetes mellitus)
273.
Trivanga Bhasma
125 to 250 mg.
274.
Vasant Kusumakar Ras
125 to 250 mg.
275.
Nisha Katakadi Kwath
10 to 30 ml.
276.
Nyagrodhadi Churna
5 to 15 gm.
277.
Jambavadyarishta
10 to 30 ml.
278.
Ayaskriti
10 to 30 ml.
18:2 Visama Meda (Dyslipidaemia)
279.
Medohara Churna
5 to 15 gm.
280.
Medohar Vidangadi Louha
1 to 2 gm.
18:3 Sthaulya (Obesity)
281.
Navak Guggulu
2 to 4 tab.
282.
Triphala Churna
5 to 15 gm.
18:4 Shotha (Oedema/inflammation)
283.
Rasna-erandadi Kwath
10 to 20 ml.
284.
Shigru Varun Kwath
10 to 20 ml.
285.
Gomutrarka
5 to 10 ml.
286.
Kansa Haritaki
5 to 10 gm.
287.
Shoth Kalanal Ras
125 to 250 mg.
288.
Grihdhoomadi Lepa
For topical use as poste
289.
Kokilakshak kashaya
10 to 20 ml.
18:5 Sleepada (Filariasis)
290.
Nityanand Ras
250 to 500 mg.
291.
Shakhotak Kwath
20 To 40 ml.
292.
Sapta parna ghan Vati
500 mg. to 1gm.
18:6 Krimi-upsarg (Infective/Septic conditions)

293.
Rasanjana Vati
½ to 1 gm.
294.
Shudh Gandhak
250 to 500 mg.
295.
Nimbadi Tel
For topical use
296.
Nimbadi Vati
500 mg. to 1 gm.
297.
Jaya Vati
250 to 500 mg.
Jatyadi Tail, Shigru Guggal, Swarnvang, Haridra, Gandhak Rasayana.
(19) BAL-ROG (PAEDIATRIC PROBLEMS)
298.
Dantodbheda gadantaka Ras
125 to 250 mg.
299.
Balark Ras
62.5 to 125 mg.
300.
Kumar Kalyan Ras
62.5 to 125 mg.
301.
Bal Chaturbhadra Churna
250 mg. 1 gm.
302.
Ras Pipari
250 mg. 500 gm.
303.
Gopi Chandanadi Gutika
250 to 500 mg.
304.
Tambula Leha
2 to 5 gm.
305.
Sankhpuspi Tel
For head
306.
Arvindasava
5 to 15 ml.
307.
Kamal beej gatta churna
1 to 3 gm.
308.
Sudha vacha
125 to 250 mg.
309.
Jatiphal Churna
¼ to ½ gm.
310.
Lakshadi Tel
For massage
311.
Blal Rasayana
1 to 3 gm.
312.
Ayush Ghutti
½ to 1 gm.
313.
Ark Pudina
3 to 5 ml.
314.
Praval Pishti
125 to 250 mg.
(20) MULTI PURPOSE-BHASMA
Sr. No.
Common Name
English Name
Uses
315.
Svarn Makshik Bhasm
Copper pyrites
Anaemia, urticaria, hyperacidity, tonic
316.
Saphatika Suddh
Alum
Haemorrhage, cough, fever, antiseptic
317.
Tankan Bhasm
Borax
Cough, tonsillitis, fever
318.
Shankh Bhasm
Conche
Gastrointestinal disorders
319.
Kapardika Bhasm
Covries
Earache, wound healing, intestinal colic
320.
Mandoor Bhasm
Pig iron bhasma
Anaemia, jaundice, oedema
321.
Lauh Bhasma (30 puti)
Iron bhasma iron
Anaemia, general debitity, pregrancey
322.
Mayur puchha bhasm
Pea cock feather bhasma
Hic cough, irritating couth, vomiting
323.
Godanti bhasma
Gypsum bhasma
Cough, cold, fever bodyoche
324.
Sringa bhasma
Stag horn bhasma
Fever, sinusitis, bronchitis, preumonia
325.
Abhrak bhasma
Mica (Biotite)
Hyperacidity, anaemia, respiratory disorder
(21) EMERGENCY AYURVEDIC DRUGS
Sr. No.
Name of the Drugs
Uses

Karpoor Ras
For acute diarrhoea

Vedanantak Ras
For severe pain of musculo-skeletal or visceral origin

Siddha-makardhwaj
For peripheral criculatory failure.

Jwaharmohra
For palpitation, syncope, cardiac tonic

Mutka pisti
For acute tachycardia, palpitation, cardiac problems

Mavavatraj ras
For neurogenic shock, angina

Sameergajkesari ras
Neurological shock, angina, neuro-muscular pains

Shvaskaschinlamani ras
For severe dyspnoea of pulmonary origin

Suvarn sameer pannag ras
For acute dyspnoea, arthralgia

Mritsanjivani sura
For high grade fever, with delirium, shock

Dhanwantar gutika
For acute respiratory distress

Manasmitra vatak
For mental disorders, insomnia

Marma gutika
For pain and inflammation in vital parts

Gorochanadi vati
For cardio respiratory problems, fever

Murivenna oil
Local application for traumatic pain and inflammation etc.
Drug mentioned under one disease condition can be used for other clinical condition as per the advise of the physician.
LIST OF MULTI PURPOSE SINGLE DRUGS
Sr. No.
Common Name
Botanical Name/ English Name
Uses

Brahmi
Bacopa monierii
Memory & sleep disorders, epilepsy

Arjun
Terminalia arjuna
Hypertension, Ischaemic Heart Disease

Ashavgandha
Withania somnifera
Nervine tonic, aphrodisiac, antistress, rasayanas

Sarpgandha
Rauwolfia serpentina
Hypertension, insomnia

Haritaki (harad)
Terminalia chebula
Abdominal upsets, constipation, oedema, obesity

Haridra (Haldi)
Curcuma longa
Bronchial asthma, allergic conditions, skin diseases, urinary diseases, common cold, trauma

Amalaki (Amla)
Emblica officinalis
Anaemia, jaundice, haemorrhage, acidity, burning sensation, immuno modulator, rasayana

Shunthi (Sonth)
Zingiber officinale
Gastrointestinal disorder, Bronchial asthma

Vacha (Sudh)
Acorus calamus
Obesity, hypertension, speech disorders, peadiatric problems

Amrita (Giloye)
Tinospora cordifolia
Fever, jaundice, gout, acidity, immuno modulator-rasayana

Shatavari
Asparagus racemosus
Aphrodisiac, dysuria, galactogogue, leucorrohea, peptie ulcer

Ashok
Saraca asoca
Meno-metrorrhagia, neuro logical disorders

Pippalimool
Piper longum (root)
Malaria, insomnia, worms, piles

Nimba (Neem)
Azadirachta indica
Urticaria, skin diseases, gastritis, bleeding piles, wounds, fumigative, dysinfectant

Kampillak (Kamila)
Mallotus philippinensis
Intestinal worms

Punarnava
Boerhavia diffusa
Urinary-renal disorders, oedema, eyediseases

Varun
Crataeva nurvala
Erysipelas, lymphadenopathy, urinary disorders, B.P.H.

Gokshur (Gokkru)
Tribulus terrestris
Calculus, dysuria, intrinsic haemorrhage, aphrodisiac

Shigru (Sehanjana)
Moringa oleifera
Abcess, septic conditions, wound healing, piles, inflammation, neuritis, joint diseases

Mulethi
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Cough hyperacidity, haemorrhage, wound healing peptic-ulcer tonic

Ajwain
Trachyspermum ammi
Colic, flatulene, emesis, carminative

Hingu (Heeng)
Ferula foetida
Carminative, dyspepsia, abdominal colic, tooth ache

Daruharidra (Rasaunt)
Berberis aristata
Liver disorders, eye disease, dysentary

Soya
Anethum sowa
Appetiser, carminative

Kamal beej/Kamal Gatta
Nelumbo nucifera
Children diarrhoea, D.U.B., all kinds of bleeding

Jaiphal
Myristica fragrans
Poediatric problems, diarrhea, abdominal pain


Simple Ayurvedic Remedies For Common Ailments
1. COUGH (Dried frequent cough, pain in the chest, headache, hoarseness of voice etc.)
S.No
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
SITOPLADI CHURNA
OR
TALISADI CHURNA
Or
CHANDRAMRIT RAS
For chewing, any one of the following.
1.LAVANGADI VATI
OR
2.ELADIVATI
3. VYOSADIVATI
3 Grams three times a day with honey.
2-3 grams 2-3 times a day with honey.
250 mg. 3 times a day with honey.
1 tab. 4-6 times a day.
(For sucking)
2. DIARRHOEA (Loose/watery motions)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
GANGADHAR CHURNA
OR
RAMBAN RAS
2-3 grams with water twice a day in the morning and evening.
125-250 mg. TDS
3. COMMON COLD WITH FEVER (Low temp., feeling of warmth, pain in the body and loss of prespiration)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
SANJIVANI VATI
125 mg. With 5-10 ml. Ginger juice 2-3 times a day.
4. HYPER ACIDITY (Sour belching, burning sensation in the throat and chest, nausea etc.
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
AVIPATTIKAR CHURNA
OR
SUTSEKHAR RAS
OR
DHATRILAUH
3-5 gms with water 2 times a day.
250 mg.-500 mg. With 1 teaspoon of honey twice a day.
500 mg. –1gm. With honey twice a day.
5.INDIGESTION (Heaviness, gas formation, constipation or loose motion)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
LASUNADI VATI
OR
HINGWASTAK CHURNA
2 tabs. Of 250 mg. Each may be taken with water or be chewed 3-4 times a day.
2-3 gms in between meals with 1 teaspoon of pure ghee.
6. CONSTIPATION (Retention of feces and gas, discomfort in the abdomen)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
TRIPHALA CHURNA
OR
HUSK OF ISABGOL
OR
SWADISHT VIRECHAN CHURNA
10 gms. With lukewarm water at bedtime.
1-2 teaspoons with warm milk at bedtime.
3-5 gms. With luke warm water at bed time.
7. EAR ACHE (Pain in ear)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
NIRGUNDI TAIL
OR
BILWADI TAI
Instil 2 drops in the ear 3-4 times a day.
Instil 2 drops in the ear 3-4 times a day.
8. VOMITING (Forceful expulsion through mouth of gastric contents.
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
MAYURPICHA BHASM
OR
Equal parts of dried ginger (sonth), black pepper (kalimirch), long pepper (pipli), rock salt all in 500 mg. In the form of powder mixed with honey3 times a day.
OR
ARK SAUNF
125 mg. – 250 mg. To be taken with water.

5-10 ML. 3-4 times a day before eating.
9. HEADACHE (Pain in head)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
GODANTI BHASMA – 250 mg.
&
PRAVAL PISHTI - 125 mg.
GODANTI MISHRAN
OR
SHRASHOOLADIVAJRA RAS
ANU TEL
2-3 times a day with tea or warm water
1-2 tabs. Of 250 mg. Each 2-3 times a day with water.
OR
125 mg. 2-3 times a day
Instil 1-2 drops in each nostril 3-4 times a day.
10. JOINT PAINS (Low back ache, pain in neck, joint pains)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
TRYODASHANG GUGULLU
OR
YOG RAJ GUGULLU
&
For external use any one of the following medicated oil to be applied gently on the affected part
VISHGARHA TAIL
OR
MAHANARAYAN TAIL
OR
PANCHGUNA TAIL
500 mg. To 1 gm. Twice a day with luke warm water.
500 mg. – 1gm. Twice a day with luke warm water.
11. ANOREXIA (Lack of appetite and nausea, distaste of mouth)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
LAVAN BHASKAR CHURNA
OR
DADIMASTAK CHURNA
OR
LASUNADI VATI
3-5 gms. With luke warm water three times a day.
3-5 gms. With water three times a day.
2-3 tabs. 250 mg. Of each three times a day.
12. COMMON COLD (Sneezing, irritation in the chest and throat, headache)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
TRIBHUVANKIRTI RAS
OR
LAXMAMIVILAS RAS
OR
GOJIHWADI KWATH
1-2 tabs. Of 125 mg. Each withhoney2-3 times a day.
-do-
10-20 gms. Of medicine should be boiled in a glass of water reduced upto ¼ filtered and to be taken 2-3 times a day.
13. SKIN PROBLEMS/INJURY & BURNS
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
TRIPHALA GUGGULU
&
JATYADI TAIL
500 mg. Twice a day with warm water.
5-10 ml to be applied on the effected part.
14. ANAEMIA (General weakness, tiredness, lack of appetite, shortness of birth, pale of the colour of the face.)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
PUNARNAVADI MANDUR
&
KUMARYASAV
OR
LOHASAVA
500 mg. – 1gm with water 2-3 times a day.
15 ml. –30 ml with equal quantity of water twice a day after meals.
15 ml.-30 ml. With equal quantity of water twice a day after meals.
15. JAUNDICE (Yellow colouring of eyes and nails, mild fever, lack of appetite, clay colour stools and yellow colour of urine)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
AROGYA VARDHINI VATI
&
MANDUR BHASMA
OR
PUNARNAVADI MANDUR
250 mg-500 mg with honey twice a day.
½ gms. Twice a day with honey.
500 mg. – 1gm twice a day with honey.
16.TOOTH ACHE (PAIN IN TOOTH)
S.No.
MEDICINE TO BE TAKEN
DOSAGE
1.
LAVANGA TAIL
&
HEENG (ASFEOTIDA)
2-3 drops to be applied with sterilized cotton on the root of affected tooth.
Pinch of heeng in the cavity.

Statewise Licensed Ayurveda Pharmacies As on 1-4-2005.
Statewise No. of Licensed Pharmacies under AYUSH as on 1.4.2005

S.No.
States/Uts
Ayurveda
Unani
Siddha
Homoeopathy
Total
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
1
Andhra Pradesh#
558
147

45
750
2
Arunachal Pradesh #




0
3
Assam#
40



40
4
Bihar#
216
20

26
262
5
Chhatisgarh
53


2
55
6
Delhi
57
15

7
79
7
Goa
8



8
8
Gujarat
294
4

10
308
9
Haryana
450
1


451
10
Himachal Pradesh
70


3
73
11
Jammu & Kashmir
9


1
10
12
Jharkhand #




0
13
Karnataka
135
1

10
146
14
Kerala
1134
1
4
19
1158
15
Madhya Pradesh
625


8
633
16
Maharashtra #
677


41
718
17
Manipur #




0
18
Meghalaya #
1



1
19
Mizoram



8
8
20
Nagaland




0
21
Orissa
192


40
232
22
Punjab #
149



149
23
Rajasthan
391
6

3
400
24
Sikkim
2
-

1
3
25
Tamil Nadu #
404
11
422
17
854
26
Tripura




0
27
Uttar Pradesh
2062
170

36
2268
28
Uttaranchal #
77
1

1
79
29
West Bengal #
324
14

370
708
30
A & N Island #




0
31
Chandigarh
3



3
32
D & N Haveli
19



19
33
Daman & Diu #
17


1
18
34
Lakshadweep #




0
35
Pondicherry #
30

20
10
60

TOTAL
7997
391
446
659
9493






#Information for current year has not been received,hence repeated for latest available year.
Source : State Governments

Classical Texts of Ayurveda in Schedule- I, of Drugs & Cosmetics ACT,1945
Arogya Kalpadruma
Arka Prakashan
Arya Bhishak
Ashtanga Hridaya
Ashtanga Samgraha
Ayurveda Kalpadruma
Ayurveda Prakasha
Ayurveda Samgraha
Bhaishajya Ratnavali
Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakara
Bhava Prakasha
Brihat Nighantu Ratnakara
Charka Samhita
Chakra Datta
Gada Nigraha
Kupi Pakva Rasayana
Nighantu Ratnakara
Rasa Chandanshu
Rasa Raja Sundara
Rasaratna Samuchaya
Rasatantra Sara Va Siddha Prayoga Sangraha Part-1
Rasa Trangini
Rasa Yoga Ratnakara
Rasa Yoga Samgraha
Rasa Pradipika
Rasendra Sara Samgraha
Rasa Pradipika
Sahasrayoga
Savaroga Chikitsa Ratnam
Sarvayoga Chikitsa Ratanam
Sharangadhara Samhita
Siddha Bhaishajaya Manimala
Siddha Yoga Samgraha
Sushruta Samhita
Vaidya Chintamani
Vaidyaka Shabda Sindu
Vaidyaka Chikitsa Sara
Vaidya Jiwan
Basava Rajeeyam
Yoga Ratnakara
Yoga Tarangini
Yoga Chintamani
Kashyapa Samhita
Bhela Samhita
Vishwanatha Chikitsa
Vrinda Chikitsa
Ayurveda Chintamani
Abhinava Chintamani
Ayurveda Ratnakar
Yogaratna Sangraha
Rasamrita
Dravyaguna Nighantu
Rasamanjari
Bangasena Samhita
Ayurvedic Formulary of India (Part-1)
Ayurveda Sara Samgraha

Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd.
Government of India Undertaking
Mohan, Distt. Almora (VI A, Ramnagar – 244 715) U.P.

About Company: The Company, (manufacturing Ayurvedic and Unani Medicines having obtained drug licence from Licensing Authority is a Government of India Undertaking (Under the Administrative Control of Deptt. of ISM&H, New Delhi, registered as a small scale industry with district industries centre, almora and Incorporated (on 12.07.78) by the registrar of companies, Kanpur (U.P.) (Regd. Office initially was at Ranikhet thereafter shifted to mohan). The company acquired at mohan (on 24.2.82) 38 acres area of land (on lease for 90 years) and already constructed 16 big factory sheds with two buildings (one big and one small) (on purchase basis) from U.P.S.I.D.C. and with effect from 1983 the regd. Office and factory started at Mohan. (The proto – trial made in Feb. ’83). The commercial production started in June, 83. Total strength at present 129 employees. Power load sanctioned 150 horsepower. The company is having its own diesel Gen.Set of 62.5 KVA. The production process both manual as well as machanised. (Table, pills making, bottle fillings, cap sealing, mixing coating – pan, sieving machines, ball mill, end runner, edge runner, driers, cone mixer etc. are being used under machanised process). Various bhatties (for boiling karah etc.), Bhasam Putta (for bhasmas), wodden vats (for various Asavas), distillation plant (for Arak etc.) are being used for production purposes. Indigenous methods as aforesaid being followed. Medicines are being produced on the basis of / by following directives contained in Ayurvedic / Unani Formulary of India and shastras. Certain patent products also being produced (viz. M.Liv and M. Vasco etc.)
Social Responsibilities: The company had given employment maximum to local peoples. Around 120 employees out of total strength are from local area and surrounding hills. The company is purchasing Kanda (Cow dung) (seasonal) from local villagers thereby also given an indirect employment to local peoples. The kumaon mandal vikas nigam ltd. is having sole right of collection of raw drugs and the company is also purchasing (available) raw drugs locally from K.M.V.N.Ltd. Besides from other income, removal of inequalities, standard of living raised, improvement in the hills economy & of national income, Development of ancillaries, upliftment of poor masses and upliftment of backward area as such to me extent.
General : Mohan, Distt. Almora U.P. a notified backward area of kumaon hills. 550 meter above sea level. (A valley in a thick forest area on the bank of Kosi (local name) river, adjacement to correct national park) (surrounding hills of kumaon are Garhwal / Chamoli Hills). To begin with in a mall way, a digital system telephone exchange, and a small (Ltd.) branch of State Bank of India and a temporary small tea shop are made available at the factory campus. A small Post – Office and a Primary School and few small shops are there in a nearby Mohan Village, (About 1 ½ K.M. before factory). The company maintained a very small medicinal Plants Garden. Ramnagar is the nearest market for day to day requirement.
Revenue to Govt.: The company is contributing by providing revenue to centre as well as state Ex-chequer by way of Income tax, Trade / Sales tax etc.
Board of Directors: Board of Directors consists of (8) Directors , Chairman (1), Managing Director (-) part – time official Director (2), part – time non-official Director (5).
Market: Earlier in view of difficulties faced in procuring standard medicine by CGHS etc., Govt. of India felt a need of having manufacturing unit under its own control, therefore the supply of the products of the company is being made mainly to the Central Govt. hospital & central govt. research units all over India (i.e. CGHS & CCRAS, CCRUM) and also to related Deptt. of certain state Govt. (Viz. Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh Govt. etc.). for the year 1998 – 99 price list of products was vetted by Govt. of India, Ministry of Finance (Deptt. of Expenditure) cost accounts branch, New Delhi. Sales is also being made in the open market. In order to promote sales in the open market to begin with the company had also appointed stockiest. Total product 307 items (Ayurvedic 197 Unani 110).
Working Capital Loans: The Govt. of India earlier sanctioned a working Capital loan of Rs. 20 lakhs (Rs. 10 lakhs each in 1983 – 84 & 1984 – 85) which was repayable in five equal installment of Rs. 2 lakhs each, on interest @15 ½ % per annum, penal interest @ 0.25% in overdue payment. The company so far paid Rs. 30lakhs each on 11.3.89, 8.4.92 & 31.3.93 ) to govt. of India which is adjusted against interest and penal interest due and in part against principal. Principal 9part) (Rs. 15.20 lakhs) and interest around Rs. 14.00 lakhs upto March ’98 payable by the company.
Share Capital: The Authorized and paid-up share capital is Rs. 100 laks paid-up share capital 51% owned by the president of India (through Deptt. viz. Secretary, joint Secretary, Director, Advisor as Ex-officicio) and 49% by U.P. State govt. Undertaking (i.e. Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam Ltd.) Nainital U.P. (As per decision of Board and shareholders of the company approval of the President of India sought for increasing Authorized share capital from Rs. 1 Crore to Rs. 3 Crore.
Distance from Mohan :
To Ramnagar 24 K.M.
To Kashipur 50 K.M.
To Moradabad 110 K.M.
To Delhi 280 K.M.
To Ranikhet 74 K.M.
To Almora 113 K.M.
To Haldwani 80 K.M.
To Nainital 90 K.M. approx.
Infectious Diseases and Medical Concerns for India
The following medical diseases or health concerns are more common in travel to India (compared to the USA and other areas of the Western World):
travelers’ diarrhea
cholera
malaria
Escherichia coli diarrhea
hepatitis A
typhoid fever
Insect born diseases
parasitic diseases
Dengue fever
filariasis
leishmaniasis
Japanese encephalitis
onchocerciasis
plague - risk for travelers is small
toxoplasmosis
HIV
AIDS
hepatitis B
amebiasis
diptheria - endemic to the region
trachoma
Tuberculosis
chickungunya
More Common Diseases and Medical Concerns for India
The following health concerns or diseases are more commonly found in India compared to the USA and other areas of the Western World:
motor vehicle trauma - wear seatbelts and avoid night driving
snake bite
drownings are common - take care when swimming
▲TopEpidemics for India
The following health concerns, diseases or comments are related to epidemics in India:
Dengue fever
Less Common Diseases and Health Concerns for India
The following health concerns or medical diseases are less commonly found in India compared to the USA and other areas of the Western World:
polio virus - wild virus isolated in 2002
meningococcal disease - outbreaks have been reported
Uncommon or Rare Diseases and Medical Concerns for IndiaThese medical diseases or health concerns are uncommon or rare in India:
yellow fever - no current risk but vaccination certification may be required for entry
Vaccinations for Travel to India
The following medical vaccinations are desirable or helpful for travel to India to prevent contagious diseases in India:
hepatitis A - or immune globulin (IG)
hepatitis B - If you might be exposed to blood (for example, health-care workers), have sexual contact with the local population, stay longer than 6 months, or be exposed through medical treatment.
Japanese encephalitis - only if you plan to visit rural areas for 4 weeks or more
rabies - if you might be exposed to wild or domestic animals through your work or recreation
typhoid - important because of resistant strains of causative agent
booster doses for tetanus, diphtheria - booster, measles - booster,, polio
Preventions or Health Precautions for Travel to India
Any health risk of travel to India may be reduced by the following precautionary health measures when visiting India:
[line]Take your malaria prevention medication before, during, and after travel, as directed
high rate of motor vehicle trauma - avoid night driving and wear seatbelts
mosquito bite prevention
insect bite protection
avoid drinking non-treated water - only drink bottled or canned water
eat only thoroughly cooked food or fruits and vegetables you have peeled yourself
to prevent fungal and parasitic infections, keep feet clean and dry, and do not go barefoot
always use latex condoms to reduce the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases
don’t eat food purchased from street vendors
don’t drink beverages with ice
don’t share needles with anyone
don’t handle animals (especially monkeys, dogs, and cats), to avoid bites and serious diseases (including rabies and plague - risk for travelers is small)
don’t swim in fresh water. Salt water is usually safer
use sunblock and take sunglasses and a hat
avoid crowded public places and public transportation whenever possible
strong currents, undertows and lack of lifeguards make swimming dangerous
Earthquakes may occur - take care and heed local precautions
Other Relevant Issues for Travel to India
The following may be issues relevant to travel to India:
adequate medical care is available in larger cities but is not to the standards of industrialized countries
medical care is substandard throughout the rest of the country
hospital beds are limited and modern technology is lacking
HIV testing may be required for entry
people carrying antiretrovirals will be detained at customs
there may be consular warnings against travel to the country, check latest advice for updates

Other Medical Articles:

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Full list of premium articles on symptoms, diagnosis and misdiagnosis

Research on New Treatment for Neglected Disease Published in the New England Journal of Medicine
San Francisco, United States and New Delhi, Delhi, India
The Institute for OneWorld Health, a US-based non-profit pharmaceutical company, today announced that Phase 3 research related to its first approved drug product, Paromomycin IM Injection (Paromomycin), was published in the current issue of The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). This clinical trial shows that the medicine paromomycin is safe, effective, and well suited to curing visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the world's second most deadly parasitic disease after malaria. The Institute for OneWorld Health, working closely with the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) sponsored the clinical trial in collaboration with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), a Geneva-based international organization sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank and the World Health Organization. The clinical trial was established with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Gland Pharma Limited, the Hyderabad, India-based drug manufacturer, working with OneWorld Health and other collaborators, received regulatory approval from the Drug-Controller General - India (DCGI) for Paromomycin IM Injection as a treatment for VL on August 31, 2006. Gland Pharma has agreed to act as the global manufacturer of Paromomycin to ensure access to all those that need it, and at a markedly reduced cost -- currently, approximately $10 USD per 21-day course of therapy. "The results of this study underscore the potential of Paromomycin to treat VL -- and save lives -- at very low cost and in safe and practical ways," said Dr. Ahvie Herskowitz, co-founder and chief medical officer of the Institute for OneWorld Health. "This research is essential to increasing access to new therapies for this neglected disease, also known as kala-azar and black fever." With approximately 500,000 new cases occurring annually worldwide, VL primarily afflicts the rural resource-poor populations in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sudan and Brazil, where affordable new therapies are needed. The print issue of the publication will be available in the June 21, 2007, issue of the NEJM. The article, "Injectable Paromomycin for Visceral Leishmaniasis in India," was authored by Shyam Sundar, M.D., T.K. Jha, M.D., Chandreshwar P. Thakur, M.D., Prabhat K. Sinha, M.D., and Sujit K. Bhattacharya, M.D., Principal Investigators in the Phase 3 clinical trial. The article is accessible online, and can be found at www.nejm.org under the "Current Issue" section of the Web site. The researchers conducted a randomized, controlled, phase 3 study comparing Paromomycin, an aminoglycoside, and amphotericin B, the present standard of care in Bihar, India. Paromomycin was shown to be noninferior to amphotericin B with a final cure rate of 94.6% vs. 98.8% for amphotericin. Paromomycin also had an acceptable safety profile, which included mild injection-site pain in 55% of patients and transient increases in liver function values in 6% of patients. The NEJM reports that Paromomycin may be advantageous because of the shorter duration of its administration (21 days versus 30 days for amphotericin B), its demonstrated safety and efficacy in pediatric patients (96%) and in patients who failed to be cured with other medicines (98%). The NEJM article concluded, "The healthcare delivery system in India is well suited to the intramuscular administration of Paromomycin under directly observed therapy, and the local manufacture of Paromomycin in India, potentially at a very low cost, makes this an approachable therapy in the setting of limited resources." Earlier this year, the World Health Organization (WHO) selected Paromomycin IM Injection for inclusion on its Model List for Essential Medicines. The WHO List of Essential Medicines provides a model for countries to select medicines addressing public health priorities according to quality, safety and efficacy standards. About Visceral Leishmaniasis VL is a systemic infection caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. The infection is transmitted by sandflies and causes chronic fever, weight loss, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and anemia. Left untreated, VL is nearly always fatal. VL currently occurs in 62 countries, primarily in the developing world. Of the approximately 500,000 new cases of VL occurring annually, 90% are found in just five countries: India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan and Brazil. South Asia carries 70% of all estimated new VL cases per year worldwide, with India alone carrying 50% of all new cases. The most affected state in India is Bihar, but VL is also endemic in the states of Jharkand, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh. About Paromomycin Phase 3 Clinical Trial The approval of Paromomycin IM Injection in India is based on data from a large Phase 3 multi-center, randomized, controlled study of 667 adult and pediatric patients conducted in Bihar State, India over a 17-month period from June 2003 until November 2004. Paromomycin was shown to cure 94.6% of patients with VL, with an acceptable side effect profile. The most common adverse reaction among patients treated with Paromomycin was mild pain at the injection site. About Paromomycin IM Injection An off-patent aminoglycoside antibiotic, paromomycin is an established drug with an extensive and well-characterized safety profile. Paromomycin IM Injection is now available from Gland Pharmaceuticals (Hyderabad, India) for the first time as a new treatment of VL in India as a once-a-day injection for 21 days. The cost of Paromomycin IM Injection is significantly lower than other currently approved VL therapies. About the Institute for OneWorld Health The Institute for OneWorld Health, the first US non-profit pharmaceutical company, develops safe, effective and affordable medicines for people with neglected diseases of the developing world. The Institute for OneWorld Health, headquartered in San Francisco, California, USA, is a tax-exempt 501(c)(3) US corporation. (http://www.oneworldhealth.org/). Media resources are available at http://www.oneworldhealth.org/media/index.php/.
Source: Business Wire (Business Wire India)

2 comments:

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